Applications in the Cloud
Google App Engine
App Engine is a platform for building scalable web applications and mobile backends. It allows you to concentrate on innovating your applications by managing the application infrastructure for you. For example, App Engine manages the hardware and networking infrastructure required to run your code.
App Engine provides you with built-in services and APIs such as NoSQL datastores, memcache, load balancing, health checks, application logging, and a user authentication API, common to most applications.
App Engine will scale your application automatically in response to the amount of traffic it receives so you only pay for the resources you use. Just upload your code and Google will manage your app’s availability. There are no servers for you to provision or maintain.
Security Scanner automatically scans and detects common web application vulnerabilities. It enables early threat identification and delivers very low
false-positive rates. You can easily set up, run, schedule, and manage security scans from the Google Cloud Platform Console.
App Engine works with popular development tools such as Eclipse, IntelliJ, Maven, Git, Jenkins, and PyCharm. You can build your apps with the tools you love without changing your workflow.
Google App Engine Standard Environment
The App Engine standard environment is based on container instances running on Google’s infrastructure. Containers are preconfigured with one of several available runtimes (Java 7, Python 2.7, Go and PHP). Each runtime also includes libraries that support App Engine standard APIs. For many applications, the standard environment runtimes and libraries may be all you need.
The App Engine standard environment makes it easy to build and deploy an application that runs reliably even under heavy load and with large amounts of data. It includes the following features:
- Persistent storage with queries, sorting, and transactions
- Automatic scaling and load balancing
- Asynchronous task queues for performing work outside the scope of a request
- Scheduled tasks for triggering events at specified times or regular intervals
- Integration with other Google cloud services and APIs
Software Development Kits (SDKs) for App Engine are available in all supported languages. Each SDK includes:
- All of the APIs and libraries available to App Engine
- A simulated, secure sandbox environment that emulates all of the App Engine services on your local computer
- Deployment tools that allow you to upload your application to the cloud and manage different versions of your application
The SDK manages your application locally, and the Google Cloud Platform Console manages your application in production. The Google Cloud Platform Console uses a web-based interface to create new applications, configure domain names, change which version of your application is live, examine access and error logs, and much more.
Applications run in a secure, sandboxed environment, allowing the App Engine standard environment to distribute requests across multiple servers, and scaling servers to meet traffic demands. Your application runs within its own secure, reliable environment that is independent of the hardware, operating system, or physical location of the server.
In this diagram we see App Engine Standard Environment in practice. You’ll develop your application and run a test version of it locally using the App Engine SDK. Then, when you’re ready, you’ll use the SDK to deploy it.
Each App Engine application runs in a GCP project. App Engine automatically provisions server instances and scales and load-balances them. Meanwhile, your application can make calls to a variety of services using dedicated APIs. For example, a NoSQL datastore to make data persistent; caching of that data using memcache; searching; logging; user login; and the ability to launch actions not triggered by direct user requests, like task queues and a task scheduler.
Google App Engine Flexible Environment
If the restrictions of App Engine Standard Environment’s sandbox model don’t work for you, but you still want to take advantage of the benefits of App Engine (like automatic scaling up and down), consider App Engine Flexible Environment. Instead of the sandbox, App Engine Flexible Environment lets you specify the container your application runs in.
Your application runs inside Docker containers on Google Compute Engine virtual machines (VMs). App Engine manages these Compute Engine machines for you. They’re health-checked, healed as necessary, and you get to choose what geographical region they run in. And critical,
backward-compatible updates to their operating systems are automatically applied. All this so that you can just focus on your code.
Microservices, authorization, SQL and noSQL databases, traffic splitting, logging, search, versioning, security scanning, memcache, and content delivery networks are all supported natively. In addition, the App Engine flexible environment allows you to customize your runtime and even the operating system of your virtual machine using Dockerfiles.
- Runtimes: The flexible environment includes native support for Java
8/Servlet 3.1/Jetty 9, Python 2.7 and Python 3.4, Node.js, and Go. Developers can customize these runtimes or provide their own runtime, such as Ruby or PHP, by supplying a custom Docker image or Dockerfile from the open source community.
- Infrastructure customization: Because VM instances in the flexible environment are Compute Engine virtual machines, you can use SSH to connect to every single VM and Docker container for debugging purposes and further customization.
- Performance: Take advantage of a wide array of CPU and memory configurations. You can specify how much CPU and memory each instance of your application needs, and the flexible environment will provision the necessary infrastructure for you.
App Engine manages your virtual machines, ensuring that:
- Instances are health-checked, healed as necessary, and co-located with other module instances within the project.
- Critical, backward-compatible updates are automatically applied to the underlying operating system.
- VM instances are automatically located by geographical region according to the settings in your project. Google’s management services ensure that all of a project’s VM instances are co-located for optimal performance.
- VM instances are restarted on a weekly basis. During restarts, Google’s management services will apply any necessary operating system and security updates.
App Engine flexible environment apps that use standard runtimes can access App Engine services: Datastore, Memcache, task queues, logging, users, and so on.
Here’s a side-by-side comparison of Standard and Flexible. Notice that Standard Environment starts up instances of your application faster, but that you get less access to the infrastructure in which your application runs. For example, Flexible Environment lets you ssh into the virtual machines on which your application runs; it lets you use local disk for scratch space; it lets you install third-party software; and it lets your application make calls to the network without going through App Engine. On the other hand, Standard Environment’s billing can drop to zero for a completely idle application.
Because we mentioned App Engine’s use of Docker containers, you may be wondering how App Engine compares to Kubernetes Engine. Here’s a side-by-side comparison of App Engine with Kubernetes Engine. App Engine Standard Environment is for people who want the service to take maximum control of their application’s deployment and scaling. Kubernetes Engine gives the application owner the full flexibility of Kubernetes. App Engine Flexible Edition is in between.
Also, App Engine Environment treats containers as a means to an end. But for Kubernetes Engine, containers are a fundamental organizing principle.
Google Cloud Endpoints and Apigee Edge
Let’s be precise about what an API is. A software service’s implementation can be complex and changeable. If other software services had to be explicitly coded all that detail in order to use that service, the result would be brittle and error-prone. So instead, application developers structure the software they write so that it presents a clean, well-defined interface that abstracts away needless detail, and then they document that interface. That’s an Application Programming Interface. The underlying implementation can change, as long as the interface doesn’t, and other pieces of software that use the API don’t have to know or care.
Sometimes you do have to change an API, such as to add or deprecate a feature. To make this kind of API change cleanly, developers version their APIs. Version 2 of an API might contain calls that version 1 does not; programs that consume the API can specify the API version they want to use in their calls.
Supporting an API is a very important task, and Google Cloud Platform provides two API management tools. They approach related problems in a different way, and each has a particular forte.
Cloud Endpoints is a distributed API management system. It provides an API console, hosting, logging, monitoring, and other features to help you create, share, maintain, and secure your APIs. You can use Cloud Endpoints with any APIs that support the OpenAPI Specification, formerly known as the Swagger spec.
Cloud Endpoints uses the distributed Extensible Service Proxy to provide low latency and high performance for serving even the most demanding APIs.
Extensible Service Proxy is a service proxy based on NGINX. It runs in its own Docker container for better isolation and scalability. The proxy is containerized and distributed in the Container Registry and Docker registry, and can be used with App Engine, Kubernetes Engine, Compute Engine or Kubernetes.
Cloud Endpoints features User authentication
- JSON Web Token validation and a streamlined developer experience for Firebase Auth, Google Auth and Auth0.
- Automated deployment With App Engine, the proxy is deployed automatically with your application. On Kubernetes Engine or Compute Engine, use Google’s containerized ESP for simple deployment.
Logging and monitoring
- Monitor traffic, error rates and latency, and review logs in Cloud Logging. Use Cloud Trace to dive into performance and BigQuery for analysis.
- Generate API keys in Google Cloud Platform Console and validate on every API call. Share your API with other developers to allow them to generate their own keys.
- Get started quickly by using one of Google’s Cloud Endpoints Frameworks or by simply adding an Open API specification to your deployment.
Cloud Endpoints supports applications running in GCP’s compute platforms, in your choice of languages, and your choice of client technologies.
Apigee Edge is also a platform for developing and managing API proxies. It has a different orientation, though: it has a focus on business problems like rate limiting, quotas, and analytics. Many users of Apigee Edge are providing a software service to other companies, and those features come in handy.
Because the backend services for Apigee Edge need not be in GCP, engineers also often use it when they are working to take a legacy application apart. Instead of replacing a monolithic application in one risky move, they can instead use Apigee Edge to peel off its services one by one, standing up microservices to implement each in turn, until the legacy application can finally be retired.
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